Considerable research has been carried out in the ULCOS programme since its start-up in 2004. In order to achieve the ambitious aims of the project, the research programme was divided into several stages. The first being an initial feasibility study lasting four to five years. Within this study over 80 technologies were investigated. This has led to identifying several promising breakthrough technologies that will enable a significant Carbon dioxide(CO2) reduction in making steel.

Existing process technologies were then evaluated using these tools and this provided a definition of best European and best world practices. This allowed the modified and new process proposals to be judged against these benchmarks.

Through this process of evaluation, a short list of technologies was identified on the basis of delivering significant Carbon dioxide(CO2) reduction. The chosen technologies needed to cover a variety of process routes - depending on where in the world and when they were going to be used in the future. The selected technologies are explained in more detail in "Where we are today".

Additionally, the research has identified a number of almost mature technologies that can deliver small cuts in Carbon dioxide(CO2) emission and these are now being developed outside the framework of ULCOS.

To read more on the research carried out under the ULCOS programme follow the links to scientific papers and publications.